Đề Xuất 2/2023 # The Difference Between The Particles “Wa” And “Ga” # Top 7 Like | Ngayhoimuanhagiagoc.com

Đề Xuất 2/2023 # The Difference Between The Particles “Wa” And “Ga” # Top 7 Like

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What is the difference between “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」?

You’ve probably asked about it, maybe even compared a whole range of sentences trying to figure it out, but with no satisfying conclusion.

And do you know why you can never get a simple, straightforward answer?

Because it’s the wrong question to ask.

It does have an answer, but it doesn’t really tell the whole story.

Of course, there’s no way you could have known this. I certainly didn’t, and for a long time had the same trouble finding an answer that really made sense to me.

One day, however, when I was studying at a university in Japan, one of my teachers started talking about these things called “kaku joshi”「格かく助詞じょし」, or “case-marking particles”. These are a specific subset of particles that, for the most part, are the main particles we use in everyday Japanese – “de”「で」, “wo”「を」, “ni”「に」, and a few others.

But not “wa”「は」.

As she explained more, it became obvious why I could never get a clear answer. The problem was that instead of trying to figure out the difference between “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」, I should have been asking…

What is the true purpose of “wa”「は」?

We know it defines the topic, but what exactly is that? And why do we use it in some situations but not others?

Understand this, and the choice between “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 becomes considerably easier, while also giving you a deeper understanding of the mindset behind the Japanese language as a whole.

Hopefully this article will help you see “wa”「は」 for what it really is, and as a result, be better equipped to choose between “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」.

Disclaimer: I said easier. Not easy. Not crystal clear, never have to think about it again, but easier. The grammatical concept of the “topic” – which is what “wa”「は」 defines – is completely foreign to English (and most other languages for that matter), so of course it will take time and effort to fully understand. This article aims simply to remove a large portion of the confusion around it. It’s also somewhat generalised to make it more digestible.

Contents The difference between “wa”「は」 and the other major particles The true purpose of “wa”「は」 Comparing our options Sentences with both “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 Key take-aways

The difference between

“wa”

「は」

and the other major particles

What is so special about “wa”「は」?

The “kaku joshi”「格かく助詞じょし」, or case-marking particles, I referred to earlier are very simple in terms of their function – they tell us how the word or phrase before them relates directly to the action described by the verb.

And of particular note:

“ga”

「が」

tells us the subject of the verb; that is, who or what performs the action

So what is “wa”「は」?

“wa”「は」 marks the topic of the sentence; it tells us what we are talking about.

Let’s put that side-by-side for clarity:

“ga”

「が」

tells us who or what performs the action.

“ni”

「に」

tells us the destination of the action.

“de”

「で」

tells us where the action takes place.

“wa”

「は」

tells us what is being talked about in the sentence.

Unlike the other major particles, “wa”「は」 does not directly relate to the action in any specific way. Instead, it tells us information about the sentence (or, more accurately, the clause) in which it is used.

The reason “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 are so easily confused is because in a lot of cases, the sentence is talking about the person performing the action, so the topic and the subject are the same person (or animal or thing).

Let’s look at a really simple example:

Taro bought a book.

Here, the person who bought the book is Taro, so Taro is the subject of the verb “bought”.

At the same time, the sentence as a whole is talking about Taro, so in Japanese, the topic of the sentence would also be Taro.

As such, we could use either “wa”「は」 or “ga”「が」 to define Taro’s role:

tarō ga hon wo kaimashita

たろう が ほん を かいました

太郎たろうが本ほんを買かいました

tarō wa hon wo kaimashita

たろう は ほん を かいました

太郎たろうは本ほんを買かいました

Both of these sentences describe the exact same activity, and are also both 100% grammatically correct. They are, however, quite different.

To understand the difference, we need to understand the true purpose of “wa”「は」.

The true purpose of

“wa”

「は」

As we know, “wa”「は」 defines the topic. More specifically:

“wa”「は」 can be used in place of, or together with, other particles (as well as independently) to define the word or phrase before it as the topic of the sentence or clause.

The topic is basically the thing that we are talking about in the sentence.

But why do we ever need to define a topic, when it doesn’t even exist in most other languages?

Put simply: For clarification.

The true purpose of “wa”「は」 is to clarify the context within which the rest of the actions described in the sentence take place.

What does that mean?

Consider that when communicating in any language, there are two main parts:

Context

New information

We talk or write to communicate new information to others, and we do so with a certain amount of already understood or implied background information, or context.

Sometimes there is a lot of context, sometimes there is none, but it looks something like this:

What we have here is a context bubble, which is defined by all the contextual information we have at any given time. This changes constantly.

Next to it is the new or important information we are trying to communicate. In any given sentence, this new/important information only relates to whatever is inside the context bubble.

We can demonstrate this with a simple conversation in English:

Paul: What did Taro do today? Susan: He bought a book.

When Paul asks the question, there was no pre-existing context – the context bubble is empty. He had to express his question in full because if he didn’t, Susan wouldn’t know what Paul was talking about.

As he asks the question, though, the information in his question gets added to the context bubble for their conversation, which in this case is the person being spoken about (Taro) and the relevant time period (today).

This means that when it comes time for Susan to answer the question, she can just say “he” instead of “Taro”, since the context bubble tells us who “he” is. Similarly, she doesn’t need to say “today” in order for the timing of the action she’s describing to be understood. The constantly evolving context bubble saves us from repeating ourselves.

The same is true in Japanese, but with one small difference. Let’s take a look:

P: What did Taro do today?

P: tarō wa kyō nani wo shimashitaka

P: たろう は きょう なに を しましたか?

P: 太郎たろうは今日きょう何なにをしましたか?

S: (He) bought a book.

S: hon wo kaimashita

S: ほん を かいました

S: 本ほんを買かいました

As before, there is no context before Paul’s question, but as he asks it, Taro is added to the context bubble, together with timing of today – the same as we saw in English.

The difference is that in Japanese, instead of using “he”, the context allows Susan to not mention Taro in her answer at all.

In both languages, the information inside the context bubble doesn’t generally need to be repeated for the message to be understood.

In English, however, certain parts of the sentence need to be included for the sentence to be grammatical.

In this case, “he” is one of those words. It is necessary because English sentences must include a subject (the person/thing doing the action) to be grammatically complete. Depending on the verb, they sometimes also need an object (the thing the action was done to).

There are, however, no such requirements in Japanese, so we can just completely leave out the things that are already known.

This is part of the reason that pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, they, etc.) are far more common in English than in Japanese. We need them in English to form complete sentences without repeating the same information over and over again (imagine a five minute conversation in which Paul and Susan have to keep referring to Taro by name, instead of just as “he/him”…). In Japanese, however, these words simply aren’t needed.

So what does this have to do with “wa”「は」?

Recall what we said earlier – that “wa”「は」 clarifies the context for the rest of the actions in the sentence.

In other words, “wa”「は」 is used to redefine or clarify the contents of the context bubble, or part thereof.

The context bubble contains the background information we need to understand what we are talking about. The topic is basically just background information that needs clarifying.

In effect, the topic is the context bubble, or at least part of it. It gives us a way to explicitly state what we are talking about.

We would do this in situations where we start talking about something new, or when the context isn’t clear or has changed, either partially or completely.

The best way to illustrate this is to compare the different ways that we can communicate the same idea.

Comparing our options

You’ll recall that for our example, “Taro bought a book”, we had these two options:

tarō ga hon wo kaimashita

たろう が ほん を かいました

太郎たろうが本ほんを買かいました

tarō wa hon wo kaimashita

たろう は ほん を かいました

太郎たろうは本ほんを買かいました

As we have seen, we actually also have another option that can be used in certain situations:

(He) bought a book.

hon wo kaimashita

ほん を かいました

本ほんを買かいました

The question is, how do we choose between these three alternatives? Let’s look at each one.

The ‘nothing’ option

We already know that we can use the last option (which doesn’t mention Taro at all) when the context makes it obvious that we are talking about Taro, such as when answering a question that is specifically about Taro. This should be relatively straightforward, if not always easy.

The

‘ga’

「が」

option

“Ga”「が」 is basically the other extreme. It describes the full action literally, with the subject, object and verb defined in full.

This means that instead of using the context bubble, Taro is included in the new/important information part of the sentence.

Remember, “ga”「が」 marks the subject, telling us who or what performed the action, so the effect of this is that a direct connection is drawn between Taro and the act of buying.

Importantly, since it places him in the new/important information part, marking Taro with “ga”「が」 actually emphasises that Taro bought the book. Not someone else, but Taro.

We might want to emphasise Taro in a situation like this:

A: Who bought the book?

A: dare ga hon wo kaimashita ka?

A: だれ が ほん を かいました か?

A: 誰だれが本ほんを買かいました か?

B: Taro bought the book.

B: tarō ga hon wo kaimashita

B: たろう が ほん を かいました

B:太郎たろうが本ほんを買かいました

In this case, B needs to emphasise “Taro” because that is the answer to the question being asked. Taro is new and important information.

This is also why “dare”「誰だれ」 should be followed by “ga”「が」 in the question. The ‘who’ is the information being sought, so of course it is important.

Quick note about this example

After A’s question, the book has, of course, moved into the context bubble…

…so B doesn’t need to include it. Instead, he could just respond:

B: Taro bought it.

B: tarō ga kaimashita.

B: たろう が かいました。

B:太郎たろうが買かいました。

Notice that in English, “the book” is replaced by “it”. The book has moved into the context bubble in English too, but because the English sentence would not be grammatically complete without an object (the thing that was bought), “it” is used to plug the hole.

The inclusion of the verb itself is a bit more optional. Complete sentences need verbs, so whether or not he includes “kaimashita”「買かいました」 would depend on whether or not he needs to answer in a complete sentence. If Taro were speaking with someone familiar, for example, he could avoid using a complete sentence answer and simply reply:

B: tarō (ga)

B: たろう (が)

B:太郎たろう (が)

“Ga”「が」 is optional here, and can help to emphasise that Taro is the person who performed the act of buying the book. It’s not usually necessary, however, when the verb is omitted and it is clear what role Taro played in the action being described (ie. it’s obvious that Taro bought the book, and wasn’t, for example the thing being bought).

The

‘wa’

「は」

option

“Wa”「は」 is somewhere in between the other two.

Where the ‘nothing’ option relies entirely on the context bubble, and the ‘ga’「が」 option doesn’t use the context bubble at all…

“wa”「は」 is used to clarify or add to the context bubble.

We use “wa”「は」 when:

it is not 100% obvious from context who or what is being talked about, AND

the ‘who’ or ‘what’ is not the important information trying to be communicated.

In the sentence…

tarō wa hon wo kaimashita

たろう は ほん を かいました。

太郎たろうは本ほんを買かいました。

…“wa”「は」 is effectively used in place of “ga”「が」 to define Taro as the topic, so instead of putting him in the new/important information part of the sentence, we are adding him to the context bubble:

This difference is everything.

Taro is no longer emphasised, and we are basically putting him on the same level as background contextual information. We only mention Taro at all to clarify that he is the person we are talking about.

In effect, “wa”「は」 shifts the emphasis of the sentence away from the word or phrase it is marking, and onto the information that follows.

Instead of drawing a direct line between Taro and the act of buying, we are referring to Taro more generally. This is a bit like saying, “Speaking of Taro, …” or, “As for Taro, …”, and then describing what he did, as opposed to just directly saying, “Taro did this”.

We could therefore say that “tarō wa hon wo kaimashita”「太郎たろうは本ほんを買かいました」 is roughly equivalent to:

Speaking of Taro, bought a book.

Why do the Japanese phrase it in this more generalised way? Because that’s just how Japanese is. It is generally a vague and indirect language, and, as we’ve seen, even information that plays a major part in the action being described can be omitted entirely if it’s understood from context – not even a pronoun is required.

Although communication in Japanese may be vague, it’s important to note that what is actually communicated (eg. Taro bought a book) is usually just as specific as it might be in English. It is only the words used to describe it that tend to be more vague. As such, important information is often expressed in generic-sounding terms (eg. bought a book), with any other details just being implied by context. Then, if the existing context alone isn’t quite enough, “wa”「は」 is used to clarify it.

Now of course, “wa”「は」 is not only used at the beginning of conversations to define who we are talking about. It is used throughout conversations in many different ways to redefine and clarify the context bubble.

We can see this if we modify our example a little:

Speaking to Taro and Eriko A: What did you do today?

A: kyō nani wo shimashita ka?

A: きょう、 なに を しました か?

A: 今日きょう、何なにをしましたか?

Taro: I bought a book.

Taro: watashi wa hon wo kaimashita.

Taro: わたし は ほん を かいました。

Taro: 私わたしは本ほんを買かいました。

Eriko: I went to school.

Eriko: watashi wa gakkō ni ikimashita.

Eriko: わたし は がっこう に いきました。

Eriko: 私わたしは学校がっこうに行いきました。

Here, if Taro were to simply say “hon wo kaimashita”「本ほんを買かいました」, it would imply that both Taro and Eriko bought a book. Because A’s question doesn’t mention anyone specific, the fact that she is talking to Taro and Eriko implies that she is asking about both of them. In effect, Taro and Eriko are both put inside the context bubble implicitly as the question is asked:

Their answers will apply to this context bubble unless it is changed, so to talk only about himself, Taro needs to clarify this by redefining the context bubble using “wa”「は」:

Taro: I bought a book.

Taro: watashi wa hon wo kaimashita

Taro: わたし は ほん を かいました。

Taro: 私わたしは本ほんを買かいました。

Only then can he go on to provide the information that was being sought, since his answer only applies to himself.

We could say that his answer is roughly equivalent to:

Taro: As for me, bought a book.

Taro clarifies that he is speaking about himself, then conveys the important information.

We can see that Eriko then does the exact same thing.

She redefines the topic as herself (this time replacing Taro), then provides her answer as it relates to the new context bubble.

To be clear, if Taro (or Eriko for that matter) were to use “ga”「が」 in this situation, he would actually be emphasising that he did the act of buying, since this would place him in the new/important information part:

He does need to mention himself for clarity of course, but ultimately, the important information is what he did, not who did it. That is, after all, what the question was asking. The same is true for Eriko.

To recap, we have three main ways to describe a simple action that somebody did:

hon wo kaimashita

ほん を かいました

本ほんを買かいました

tarō ga hon wo kaimashita

たろう が ほん を かいました

太郎たろうが本ほんを買かいました

tarō wa hon wo kaimashita

たろう は ほん を かいました

太郎たろうは本ほんを買かいました

We can say that:

Neither

“wa”

「は」

nor

“ga”

「が」

is needed if it is obvious who/what we’re talking about

“Ga”

「が」

emphasises the information that comes before it as new or important information

“Wa”

「は」

helps clarify who/what we are talking about, shifting the emphasis to the information that comes after it

Now let’s look at some of the most common situations where “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 can be particularly confusing.

Sentences with both

“wa” and “ga”

「は」 and 「が」

Most non-complex sentences (ie. those without sub-clauses) will only contain either “wa”「は」 or “ga”「が」, but there are some that contain both. It is these sentences where the context bubble should start to be particularly handy.

“Wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 usually appear together when we want to communicate information about someone or something, but do so by referring to them in relation to someone or something else.

One common situation is when we describe body parts; that is, we want to describe the body part, but in relation to the person to whom the body part belongs.

Let’s look at an example of this, starting with a sentence where the verb isn’t “desu”「です」:

His legs grew longer.

kare wa ashi ga nobimashita.

かれ は あし が のびました。

彼かれは足あしが伸のびました。

Let’s break this down, working backwards.

First, let’s acknowledge the most important element in the sentence, our verb, “nobimashita”「伸のびました」, meaning “grew longer” or “lengthened”.

Next, let’s remember what “ga”「が」 does:

“ga”「が」 tells us the subject of the verb; that is, who or what performs the action.

So, who or what is it that grew longer? The thing marked by “ga”「が」 → “ashi”「足あし」.

Just using what we have so far, our sentence is:

(The) legs grew longer.

ashi ga nobimashita.

あし が のびました。

足あしが伸のびました。

That bring us to our last piece, “kare wa”「彼かれは」. Remember that:

“wa”「は」 is used to clarify or add to the context bubble.

By adding “kare wa”「彼かれは」 before “ashi ga nobimashita”「足あしが伸のびました」, we are just putting “kare”「彼かれ」 inside the context bubble.

With “wa”「は」, we are clarifying who we are talking about for the rest of the sentence, just as we did before.

Once we have that context bubble defined, we go on to say, “the legs grew longer”. This on its own is a generic statement about some legs, but since “kare”「彼かれ」 is in the context bubble, we know that the legs must belong to “him”. The result is something like this:

As for him, the legs grew longer.

This is obviously very different to English, where we would usually define the legs as being owned by him (his legs), and describe the action that his legs are performing (growing longer).

You can do this in Japanese too, so it’s not wrong to say, for example:

His legs grew longer.

kare no ashi wa nobimashita.

かれ の あし は のびました。

彼かれの足あしは伸のびました。

This, however, isn’t a very natural way to express this kind of idea.

One thing I would like to point out here is that there is a major difference between this sentence and our example with Taro. The difference is:

Taro performed the act of buying the book.

“He” did not perform the act of growing longer.

Yet, both were marked by “wa”「は」 (at least in some cases).

The reason this is possible is because all “wa”「は」 did was tell us who the sentences were about. The important information was something else related to these people. In one case (Taro’s), it was what that person did. In the other, it was an action done by something else (his legs).

Now let’s see how this works with sentences that use “desu”「です」, both for body parts and various other things.

Using

“wa” and “ga”

「は」 and 「が」

when the main verb is

“desu”

「です」

“Desu”「です」 may be a special verb, but in terms of “wa”「は」 and our context bubble, nothing really changes.

Let’s look at an example sentence:

His legs are long. / He has long legs.

kare wa ashi ga nagai desu.

かれ は あし が ながい です。

彼かれは足あしが長ながいです。

We can break this down the same way we did a moment ago, except we need to clarify something first.

With adjectives, such as “nagai”「長ながい」, we should look at this as being grouped together with “desu”「です」 to form a single phrase meaning “being long” or “is long”. If we do this, we end up with a phrase that is comparable to other verbs, such as “nobimasu”「伸のびます」 (grow longer) from our previous example.

If we put them side-by-side…

nagai desu

長ながいです

= being long

nobimasu

伸のびます

= grow longer

This is simplifying things a little, but in order to make the highly irregular verb “desu”「です」 somewhat comparable with every other verb, we will group “nagai”「長ながい」 and “desu”「です」 together to be a single phrase that describes a certain act of being.

So, our action is “nagai desu”「長ながいです」, or “being long”.

Who or what is it that is “being long”? The thing marked by “ga”「が」 → “ashi”「足あし」.

Lastly, “kare wa”「彼かれは」 appears before “ashi ga nagai desu”「足あしが長ながいです」, so just like before, “kare”「彼かれ」 is inside the context bubble.

As always, we start by clarifying who we are talking about, then describe something related to that. In this case, that translates roughly to:

As for him, the legs are long.

Now, let’s apply this approach to a few more confusing situations.

Suki

好すき

,

kirai

嫌きらい

and

hoshī

欲ほしい

Coming from English, “suki”「好すき」 (like), “kirai”「嫌きらい」 (hate) and “hoshī”「欲ほしい」 (want) probably take some getting used to because they are adjectives, while their English equivalents are verbs. They are also often used in sentences that include both “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」, so let’s see how we can apply the context bubble to make better sense of them.

Since they are adjectives, these words all work in exactly the same way as “nagai”「長ながい」 did in our previous example. Let’s take a look:

I like sushi.

watashi wa sushi ga suki desu.

わたし は すし が すき です。

私わたしはすしが好すきです。

If we break this down as we did before, we can see that the same rules apply.

What is the action? The adjective/verb combination “suki desu”「好すきです」, which roughly means “being liked”.

Who or what is performing that action? The word or phrase before “ga”「が」, which is “sushi”「すし」.

Our sentence so far is therefore:

Sushi is liked.

sushi ga suki desu.

すし が すき です。

すしが好すきです。

Lastly, who or what are we talking about? The word or phrase before “wa”「は」, which is “watashi”「私わたし」.

We therefore have “watashi”「私わたし」 in the context bubble, and this tells us who we are talking about when we say “sushi is liked”.

When talking about me, sushi is liked.

We can do exactly the same thing with “kirai”「嫌きらい」, “hoshī”「欲ほしい」, and other similar words.

I hate natto.

watashi wa nattō ga kirai desu.

わたし は なっとう が きらい です。

私わたしは納豆なっとうが嫌きらいです。

I want a new computer.

watashi wa atarashī pasokon ga hoshī desu.

わたし は あたらしい パソコン が ほしい です。

私わたしは新あたらしいパソコンが欲ほしいです。

Again, this is obviously very different from English, where these ideas are expressed as actions that we perform – we like, hate and want things in the same way that we do things. Hopefully, though, you can see how this is entirely consistent with other Japanese expressions, and that the roles of “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 are clear and consistent. They just take a bit (or a lot) of getting used to.

Bonus: The

~tai

~たい

form of verbs

Verbs with the ~tai~たい ending, such as “tabetai”「食たべたい」, also work the same way as these adjectives because that’s exactly what they are. Let’s see an example:

I want to eat sushi.

watashi wa sushi ga tabetai desu.

わたし は すし が たべたい です。

私わたしはすしが食たべたいです。

Here’s what that looks like:

In this sentence, I’m talking about me, and then within that context, I’m saying in fairly generic-sounding terms that the eating of sushi is wanted.

Arimasu

あります

and

imasu

います

The verbs “arimasu”「あります」 and “imasu”「います」 can also be a little tricky, as they share similarities with “desu”「です」 as well as all other verbs. We can, however, apply all of the principles we’ve covered so far in the same way.

Let’s start by looking at an example where “arimasu”「あります」 is used just like any other verb that isn’t “desu”「です」:

Her bag is in the classroom.

kanojo no kaban wa kyōshitsu ni arimasu

かのじょ の カバン は きょうしつ に あります。

彼女かのじょのカバンは教室きょうしつにあります。

The first thing we need to make absolutely clear – just to be on the safe side – is that even though the English translation here uses the verb “is” or “to be”, it has a distinctly different meaning to when “desu”「です」 was used.

While “desu”「です」 is essentially used to equate two things as being the same (A = B), “arimasu”「あります」 describes existence (as does “imasu”「います」).

As such, we could kind of translate the above as, “Her bag exists in the classroom”. We could not, however, change our “desu”「です」 example sentence to “His legs exist long”. These “to be” words mean very different things.

Now, if we put this “arimasu”「あります」 sentence side-by-side with our example from earlier, we can see that they are very similar:

tarō wa hon wo kaimashita.

kanojo no kaban wa kyōshitsu ni arimasu.

たろう は ほん を かいました。

かのじょ の カバン は きょうしつ に あります。

太郎たろうは本ほんを買かいました。

彼女かのじょのカバンは教室きょうしつにあります。

Who/what is performing the action in each of these sentences?

“tarō”

「太郎たろう」

is the person watching

“kanojo no kaban”

「彼女かのじょのカバン」

is the thing that is being/existing

As these are the person/thing performing the action, they could be marked by “ga”「が」, but as we have learned, this would emphasise them too much.

Instead, we use “wa”「は」 to define them as our topic, essentially demoting them to the context bubble. Then, using that context bubble, we describe the important information that we actually want to communicate:

This should be relatively straightforward.

However, “arimasu”「あります」 and “imasu”「います」 are also sometimes used in sentences that include both “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」, and this is where it can get confusing.

Fortunately, our same rules apply – “wa”「は」 defines/clarifies the context bubble, and “ga”「が」 defines the thing that is performing the act of “being” (or, if it’s easier, “existing”).

For example:

I have an older sister.

watashi wa ane ga imasu.

わたし は あね が います。

私わたしは姉あねがいます。

First, we clarify that “watashi”「私わたし」 is in the context bubble. Then, in that context, we describe the older sister as being/existing.

Within the context of “watashi”「私わたし」, an older sister exists.

Here’s another example:

He doesn’t have any money.

kare wa okane ga arimasen.

かれ は おかね が ありません。

彼かれはお金かねがありません。

Within the context of “kare”「彼かれ」, no money exists.

As a side note, notice how the way we express these ideas in English is with the word “have”, not “be” or “exist”. This is further evidence of the indirect nature of the Japanese language. In Japanese, I don’t own my sister, just as “he” doesn’t own money. My sister and money exist on their own; they just so happen to do so in a way that relates to me and him, respectively.

This reflects a broader cultural and linguistic difference that actually shapes the way we view the world. Generally:

In English, people do and own things.

In Japanese, things happen and exist.

I’ve often thought about the chicken-and-egg situation that this represents – did the Japanese culture of indirectness evolve due to the structure of the language, or did the language evolve to make vague expression easier? I suspect the answer is both, as ultimately, language is culture.

Key take-aways

Here are the main lessons I hope you can take from this article:

Particles like

“ga”

「が」

,

“wo”

「を」

and

“ni”

「に」

 define how certain things relate to the action, while

“wa”

「は」

 tells us what is being talked about in the sentence

There are two main things that determine the meaning of what we communicate – context, and new/important information

Marking something as the subject using “ga” classifies it as new/important information, giving it emphasis

“wa”

「は」

allows us to redefine or clarify some or all of the context before stating new/important information

“wa”

「は」

shifts the emphasis of the sentence away from the word or phrase it is marking, and onto the information the follows

Of course, this doesn’t cover absolutely everything. Entire books have been written about “wa” and “ga”「は」 and 「が」 simply because there are so many different variables at play in any given situation.

Hopefully, though, you now have a better understanding of the difference between these two essential particles, and will be able to apply these lessons much more widely than I have here.

The Difference Between The Particles “Wa” And “Ga”

You’ve probably asked about it, maybe even compared a whole range of sentences trying to figure it out, but with no satisfying conclusion.

And do you know why you can never get a simple, straightforward answer?

Because it’s the wrong question to ask.

It does have an answer, but it doesn’t really tell the whole story.

Of course, there’s no way you could have known this. I certainly didn’t, and for a long time had the same trouble finding an answer that really made sense to me.

One day, however, when I was studying at a university in Japan, one of my teachers started talking about these things called “kaku joshi”, or “case-marking particles”. These are a specific subset of particles that, for the most part, are the main particles we use in everyday Japanese – “de” 「で」, “wo” 「を」, “ni” 「に」, and a few others.

As she explained more, it became obvious why I could never get a clear answer. The problem was that instead of trying to figure out the difference between “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」, I should have been asking…

We know it defines the topic, but what exactly is that? And why do we use it in some situations but not others?

Understand this, and the choice between “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 becomes considerably easier, while also giving you a deeper understanding of the mindset behind the Japanese language as a whole.

Hopefully this article will help you see “wa” 「は」 for what it really is, and as a result, be better equipped to choose between “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」.

Disclaimer: I said easier. Not easy. Not crystal clear, never have to think about it again, but easier. The grammatical concept of the “topic” – which is what “wa” 「は」 defines – is completely foreign to English (and most other languages for that matter), so of course it will take time and effort to fully understand. This article aims simply to remove a large portion of the confusion around it. It’s also somewhat generalised to make it more digestible.

The difference between “wa” 「は」 and the other major particles

What is so special about “wa” 「は」?

The “kaku joshi”, or case-marking particles, I referred to earlier are very simple in terms of their function – they tell us how the word or phrase before them relates directly to the action described by the verb.

And of particular note:

“wa” 「は」 marks the topic of the sentence; it tells us what we are talking about.

Let’s put that side-by-side for clarity:

Unlike the other major particles, “wa” 「は」 does not directly relate to the action in any specific way. Instead, it tells us information about the sentence (or, more accurately, the clause) in which it is used.

The reason “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 are so easily confused is because in a lot of cases, the sentence is talking about the person performing the action, so the topic and the subject are the same person (or animal or thing).

Let’s look at a really simple example:

Taro bought a book.

Here, the person who bought the book is Taro, so Taro is the subject of the verb “bought”.

At the same time, the sentence as a whole is talking about Taro, so in Japanese, the topic of the sentence would also be Taro.

As such, we could use either “wa” 「は」 or “ga” 「が」 to define Taro’s role:

Both of these sentences describe the exact same activity, and are also both 100% grammatically correct. They are, however, quite different.

To understand the difference, we need to understand the true purpose of “wa” 「は」.

The true purpose of “wa” 「は」

As we know, “wa” 「は」 defines the topic. More specifically:

“wa” 「は」 can be used in place of, or together with, other particles (as well as independently) to define the word or phrase before it as the topic of the sentence or clause.

The topic is basically the thing that we are talking about in the sentence.

But why do we ever need to define a topic, when it doesn’t even exist in most other languages?

Put simply: For clarification.

What does that mean?

Consider that when communicating in any language, there are two main parts:

We talk or write to communicate new information to others, and we do so with a certain amount of already understood or implied background information, or context.

Sometimes there is a lot of context, sometimes there is none, but it looks something like this:

Next to it is the new or important information we are trying to communicate. In any given sentence, this new/important information only relates to whatever is inside the context bubble.

We can demonstrate this with a simple conversation in English:

Paul: What did Taro do today? Susan: He bought a book.

As he asks the question, though, the information in his question gets added to the context bubble for their conversation, which in this case is the person being spoken about (Taro) and the relevant time period (today).

This means that when it comes time for Susan to answer the question, she can just say “he” instead of “Taro”, since the context bubble tells us who “he” is. Similarly, she doesn’t need to say “today” in order for the timing of the action she’s describing to be understood. The constantly evolving context bubble saves us from repeating ourselves.

The same is true in Japanese, but with one small difference. Let’s take a look:

The difference is that in Japanese, instead of using “he”, the context allows Susan to not mention Taro in her answer at all.

In both languages, the information inside the context bubble doesn’t generally need to be repeated for the message to be understood.

In English, however, certain parts of the sentence need to be included for the sentence to be grammatical.

In this case, “he” is one of those words. It is necessary because English sentences must include a subject (the person/thing doing the action) to be grammatically complete. Depending on the verb, they sometimes also need an object (the thing the action was done to).

There are, however, no such requirements in Japanese, so we can just completely leave out the things that are already known.

This is part of the reason that pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, they, etc.) are far more common in English than in Japanese. We need them in English to form complete sentences without repeating the same information over and over again (imagine a five minute conversation in which Paul and Susan have to keep referring to Taro by name, instead of just as “he/him”…). In Japanese, however, these words simply aren’t needed.

Recall what we said earlier – that “wa” 「は」 clarifies the context for the rest of the actions in the sentence.

The context bubble contains the background information we need to understand what we are talking about. The topic is basically just background information that needs clarifying.

In effect, the topic is the context bubble, or at least part of it. It gives us a way to explicitly state what we are talking about.

We would do this in situations where we start talking about something new, or when the context isn’t clear or has changed, either partially or completely.

The best way to illustrate this is to compare the different ways that we can communicate the same idea.

Comparing our options

You’ll recall that for our example, “Taro bought a book”, we had these two options:

As we have seen, we actually also have another option that can be used in certain situations:

The question is, how do we choose between these three alternatives? Let’s look at each one.

The ‘nothing’ option

We already know that we can use the last option (which doesn’t mention Taro at all) when the context makes it obvious that we are talking about Taro, such as when answering a question that is specifically about Taro. This should be relatively straightforward, if not always easy.

“Ga” 「が」 is basically the other extreme. It describes the full action literally, with the subject, object and verb defined in full.

This means that instead of using the context bubble, Taro is included in the new/important information part of the sentence.

Importantly, since it places him in the new/important information part, marking Taro with “ga” 「が」 actually emphasises that Taro bought the book. Not someone else, but Taro.

We might want to emphasise Taro in a situation like this:

In this case, B needs to emphasise “Taro” because that is the answer to the question being asked. Taro is new and important information.

This is also why “dare” should be followed by “ga” 「が」 in the question. The ‘who’ is the information being sought, so of course it is important.

Quick note about this example

After A’s question, the book has, of course, moved into the context bubble…

B: Taro bought it.

B: tarō ga kaimashita.

B: たろう が かいました。

Notice that in English, “the book” is replaced by “it”. The book has moved into the context bubble in English too, but because the English sentence would not be grammatically complete without an object (the thing that was bought), “it” is used to plug the hole.

The inclusion of the verb itself is a bit more optional. Complete sentences need verbs, so whether or not he includes “kaimashita” would depend on whether or not he needs to answer in a complete sentence. If Taro were speaking with someone familiar, for example, he could avoid using a complete sentence answer and simply reply:

B: tarō (ga)

B: たろう (が)

“Ga” 「が」 is optional here, and can help to emphasise that Taro is the person who performed the act of buying the book. It’s not usually necessary, however, when the verb is omitted and it is clear what role Taro played in the action being described (ie. it’s obvious that Taro bought the book, and wasn’t, for example the thing being bought).

“Wa” 「は」 is somewhere in between the other two.

Where the ‘nothing’ option relies entirely on the context bubble, and the ‘ga’ 「が」 option doesn’t use the context bubble at all…

it is not 100% obvious from context who or what is being talked about, AND

the ‘who’ or ‘what’ is not the important information trying to be communicated.

In the sentence…

…”wa” 「は」 is effectively used to define Taro as the topic, so instead of putting him in the new/important information part of the sentence, we are adding him to the context bubble:

Taro is no longer emphasised, and we are basically putting him on the same level as background contextual information. We only mention Taro at all to clarify that he is the person we are talking about.

In effect, “wa” 「は」 shifts the emphasis of the sentence away from the word or phrase it is marking, and onto the information that follows.

Instead of drawing a direct line between Taro and the act of buying, we are referring to Taro more generally. This is a bit like saying, “Speaking of Taro, …” or, “As for Taro, …”, and then describing what he did, as opposed to just directly saying, “Taro did this”.

We could therefore say that “tarō wa hon wo kaimashita” is roughly equivalent to:

Speaking of Taro, bought a book.

Why do the Japanese phrase it in this more generalised way? Because that’s just how Japanese is. It is generally a vague and indirect language, and, as we’ve seen, even information that plays a major part in the action being described can be omitted entirely if it’s understood from context – not even a pronoun is required.

Although communication in Japanese may be vague, it’s important to note that what is actually communicated (eg. Taro bought a book) is usually just as specific as it might be in English. It is only the words used to describe it that tend to be more vague. As such, important information is often expressed in generic-sounding terms (eg. bought a book), with any other details just being implied by context. Then, if the existing context alone isn’t quite enough, “wa” 「は」 is used to clarify it.

Now of course, “wa” 「は」 is not only used at the beginning of conversations to define who we are talking about. It is used throughout conversations in many different ways to redefine and clarify the context bubble.

We can see this if we modify our example a little:

Speaking to Taro and Eriko A: What did you do today?

A: kyō nani wo shimashita ka?

A: きょう、 なに を しました か?

Here, if Taro were to simply say “hon wo kaimashita”, it would imply that both Taro and Eriko bought a book. Because A’s question doesn’t mention anyone specific, the fact that she is talking to Taro and Eriko implies that she is asking about both of them. In effect, Taro and Eriko are both put inside the context bubble implicitly as the question is asked:

We could say that his answer is roughly equivalent to:

Taro: As for me, bought a book.

Taro clarifies that he is speaking about himself, then conveys the important information.

We can see that Eriko then does the exact same thing.

To be clear, if Taro (or Eriko for that matter) were to use “ga” 「が」 in this situation, he would actually be emphasising that he did the act of buying, since this would place him in the new/important information part:

To recap, we have three main ways to describe a simple action that somebody did:

We can say that:

Neither “wa” 「は」 nor “ga” 「が」 is needed if it is obvious who/what we’re talking about

“Ga” 「が」 emphasises the information that comes before it as new or important information

“Wa” 「は」 helps clarify who/what we are talking about, shifting the emphasis to the information that comes after it

Now let’s look at some of the most common situations where “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 can be particularly confusing.

Sentences with both “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」

Most non-complex sentences (ie. those without sub-clauses) will only contain either “wa” 「は」 or “ga” 「が」, but there are some that contain both. It is these sentences where the context bubble should start to be particularly handy.

“Wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 usually appear together when we want to communicate information about someone or something, but do so by referring to them in relation to someone or something else.

One common situation is when we describe body parts; that is, we want to describe the body part, but in relation to the person to whom the body part belongs.

Let’s look at an example of this, starting with a sentence where the verb isn’t “desu” 「です」:

Let’s break this down, working backwards.

First, let’s acknowledge the most important element in the sentence, our verb, “nobimashita”, meaning “grew longer” or “lengthened”.

Next, let’s remember what “ga” 「が」 does:

“ga” 「が」 tells us the subject of the verb; that is, who or what performs the action.

So, who or what is it that grew longer? The thing marked by “ga” 「が」 → “ashi”.

Just using what we have so far, our sentence is:

“wa” 「は」 is used to clarify or add to the context bubble.

As for him, the legs grew longer.

This is obviously very different to English, where we would usually define the legs as being owned by him (his legs), and describe the action that his legs are performing (growing longer).

You can do this in Japanese too, so it’s not wrong to say, for example:

His legs grew longer.

kare no ashi wa nobimashita.

かれ の あし は のびました。

This, however, isn’t a very natural way to express this kind of idea.

One thing I would like to point out here is that there is a major difference between this sentence and our example with Taro. The difference is:

Taro performed the act of buying the book.

“He” did not perform the act of growing longer.

Yet, both were marked by “wa” 「は」 (at least in some cases).

The reason this is possible is because all “wa” 「は」 did was tell us who the sentences were about. The important information was something else related to these people. In one case (Taro’s), it was what that person did. In the other, it was an action done by something else (his legs).

Now let’s see how this works with sentences that use “desu” 「です」, both for body parts and various other things.

Using “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 when the main verb is “desu” 「です」

“Desu” 「です」 may be a special verb, but in terms of “wa” 「は」 and our context bubble, nothing really changes.

Let’s look at an example sentence:

We can break this down the same way we did a moment ago, except we need to clarify something first.

With adjectives, such as “nagai”, we should look at this as being grouped together with “desu” 「です」 to form a single phrase meaning “being long” or “is long”. If we do this, we end up with a phrase that is comparable to other verbs, such as “nobimasu” (grow longer) from our previous example.

If we put them side-by-side…

This is simplifying things a little, but in order to make the highly irregular verb “desu” 「です」 somewhat comparable with every other verb, we will group “nagai” and “desu” 「です」 together to be a single phrase that describes a certain act of being.

Who or what is it that is “being long”? The thing marked by “ga” 「が」 → “ashi”.

As for him, the legs are long.

Now, let’s apply this approach to a few more confusing situations.

Coming from English, “suki” (like), “kirai” (hate) and “hoshī” (want) probably take some getting used to because they are adjectives, while their English equivalents are verbs. They are also often used in sentences that include both “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」, so let’s see how we can apply the context bubble to make better sense of them.

If we break this down as we did before, we can see that the same rules apply.

Who or what is performing that action? The word or phrase before “ga” 「が」, which is “sushi” 「すし」.

Our sentence so far is therefore:

Sushi is liked.

sushi ga suki desu.

すし が すき です。

Lastly, who or what are we talking about? The word or phrase before “wa” 「は」, which is “watashi”.

I hate natto.

watashi wa nattō ga kirai desu.

わたし は なっとう が きらい です。

Again, this is obviously very different from English, where these ideas are expressed as actions that we perform – we like, hate and want things in the same way that we do things. Hopefully, though, you can see how this is entirely consistent with other Japanese expressions, and that the roles of “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 are clear and consistent. They just take a bit (or a lot) of getting used to.

Bonus: The ~tai ~たい form of verbs

Verbs with the ~tai ~たい ending, such as “tabetai”, also work the same way as these adjectives because that’s exactly what they are. Let’s see an example:

I want to eat sushi.

Here’s what that looks like:

The verbs “arimasu” 「あります」 and “imasu” 「います」 can also be a little tricky, as they share similarities with “desu” 「です」 as well as all other verbs. We can, however, apply all of the principles we’ve covered so far in the same way.

Let’s start by looking at an example where “arimasu” 「あります」 is used just like any other verb that isn’t “desu” 「です」:

The first thing we need to make absolutely clear – just to be on the safe side – is that even though the English translation here uses the verb “is” or “to be”, it has a distinctly different meaning to when “desu” 「です」 was used.

While “desu” 「です」 is essentially used to equate two things as being the same (A = B), “arimasu” 「あります」 describes existence (as does “imasu” 「います」).

As such, we could kind of translate the above as, “Her bag exists in the classroom”. We could not, however, change our “desu” 「です」 example sentence to “His legs exist long”. These “to be” words mean very different things.

Now, if we put this “arimasu” 「あります」 sentence side-by-side with our example from earlier, we can see that they are very similar:

tarō wa hon wo kaimashita.

kanojo no kaban wa kyōshitsu ni arimasu.

かのじょ の カバン は きょうしつ に あります。

Who/what is performing the action in each of these sentences?

As these are the person/thing performing the action, they could be marked by “ga” 「が」, but as we have learned, this would emphasise them too much.

Instead, we use “wa” 「は」 to define them as our topic, essentially demoting them to the context bubble. Then, using that context bubble, we describe the important information that we actually want to communicate:

However, “arimasu” 「あります」 and “imasu” 「います」 are also sometimes used in sentences that include both “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」, and this is where it can get confusing.

Fortunately, our same rules apply – “wa” 「は」 defines/clarifies the context bubble, and “ga” 「が」 defines the thing that is performing the act of “being” (or, if it’s easier, “existing”).

For example:

This reflects a broader cultural and linguistic difference that actually shapes the way we view the world. Generally:

In English, people do and own things.

In Japanese, things happen and exist.

I’ve often thought about the chicken-and-egg situation that this represents – did the Japanese culture of indirectness evolve due to the structure of the language, or did the language evolve to make vague expression easier? I suspect the answer is both, as ultimately, language is culture.

Key take-aways

Here are the main lessons I hope you can take from this article:

Particles like “ga” 「が」, “wo” 「を」 and “ni” 「に」 define how certain things relate to the action, while “wa” 「は」 tells us what is being talked about in the sentence

There are two main things that determine the meaning of what we communicate – context, and new/important information

Marking something as the subject using “ga” classifies it as new/important information, giving it emphasis

“wa” 「は」 allows us to redefine or clarify some or all of the context before stating new/important information

“wa” 「は」 shifts the emphasis of the sentence away from the word or phrase it is marking, and onto the information the follows

Of course, this doesn’t cover absolutely everything. Entire books have been written about “wa” and “ga” 「は」 and 「が」 simply because there are so many different variables at play in any given situation.

Hopefully, though, you now have a better understanding of the difference between these two essential particles, and will be able to apply these lessons much more widely than I have here.

Japanese Particles は (Wa) &Amp; が (Ga)

Many students are confused about the differences between the 2 Japanese particles は (wa) & が (ga).

While in some occasions it’s possible that they are interchangeable within a sentence with slightly different meanings, there are many distinct differences between these 2 particles.

There are many functions for particles は (wa) & が (ga).

In this lesson, you will get to learn the main differences between them and when to use which of them in different situations.

If you can understand these differences correctly, you will be able avoid mistakes made by many students.

Functions of Japanese Particle は (wa)

1. Topic Marker

Particle は (wa) is usually used as a topic marker in a sentence. When a noun is marked as a topic by は (wa), it’s something both the speaker and listener are familiar with. For example, if the speaker says…

…the speaker assumes that the listener also knows about Mr Tanaka and thereby knows who he is talking about.

2. Contrast Marker

Another function of particle は (wa) is using it as a contrast marker. For instance, when you say…

わたしはコーヒーをのみません。watashi wa ko-hi wo nomimasen

…you are just expressing that you don’t drink coffee. However, if you change を (wo) to は (wa)…

…you emphasize that you don’t drink coffee, but any other drink. Notice that there are two は (wa) in the above example.

Normally only one は (wa) or one topic is allowed in a sentence. In this case, the second は (wa) is the contrast marker. So it’s ok that there are two は (wa).

3. Universal Things

When you are describing something with adjectives, you will normally use this sentence pattern of Noun が Adjective です. This has been explained in the section of Japanese body parts.

However, when it comes to describing universal things that never change such as snow and earth, you need to use Japanese particle は (wa) instead. For instance, you will have to say…

That’s because if you say ゆき が しろいです (yuki ga shiroi desu), it sounds like normally snow is in other colors other than white. This is incorrect. Therefore, for description of universal things that never change, use は (wa).

Let’s say if something terrible happens one day and snow becomes red. In this case, you can say ゆき が あかいです (yuki ga akai desu – Snow is red) because this is new information that we don’t know.

Functions of Japanese Particle が (ga)

1. Subject in Description Sentence

You have learned this in lesson 7 on expressing existence in Japanese. You use particle が (ga) to describe thing that you see. For example…

You are just describing what you see with nothing particular in your mind.

2. New Information

Particle が (ga) is also used when you are giving new information in a sentence. Like for example, if you say…

…you are giving new information that there are children running over there. You cannot use は (wa) here because the listener don’t know which child you are talking about.

Therefore only when the listener knows which child you are referring to, you can then use は (wa) as the topic marker to be more specific.

3. Fixed Sentence Patterns

There are some fixed sentence patterns that use the Japanese particle が (ga), such as those which you use to describe Japanese body parts, and those which you use to describe Likes and Dislikes in Japanese.

All these have the same construction of “… は (wa) … が (ga)”, just like…

4. Question Word for Object

As you can see in the above question, Japanese particle は (wa) cannot be used in question word, because Topic is something you should know you are talking about.

どのほん (dono hon) which means “Which book” indicates the speaker doesn’t know which book, therefore が (ga) is used instead.

5. Question Word for People

Similarly, particle は (wa) cannot be used in question word for people. That’s because you don’t know who you are talking about. So it’s always だれが (dare ga), you can never use だれは (dare wa).

There are many more functions for this 2 Japanese particles は (wa) and が (ga). What you have learned above are just some main functions.

If you want to know more about Japanese particles, I recommend you get one of these books on particles.

Related Pages

Lesson 11: Particles.

Lesson 14: Particles Change in Negative Answers.

Lesson 15: Particles ka and mo with Question Words.

Lesson 16: Particles to and de.

Lesson 27: Particle to for Quotation.

Intermediate Lesson 14: Particle ga for Introduction.

Intermediate Lesson 18: Particle de with more Functions.

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Let’S Learn Japanese Particles: が (Ga), から (Kara), And まで (Made) !

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Particles: が (ga)

An indication of a location

The Japanese particle が (ga) marks the subject of a sentence when it is first introduced to a conversation. が (ga) can also be used for joining sentences, such as the word “but”. However, the Japanese particle が (ga) is technically a different word when using it.

The particle が (ga), in addition, can also be used as a way to emphasize the subject or distinguish the subject from others and can be used as “but” as well.

Although は (wa) is used when question words such as who and where comes after the topic in the sentence. However, the particle が (ga) is used when a question word is the subject or part is a subject in a sentence.

Example

白い犬が好きです。Shiroi inu ga suki desu.I like white dogs (as opposed to liking other colors of dogs). この駅で降りたのですが...Kono eki de oritani no desu ga...I want to go see a movie, but...

An indication of but/and

In addition, the Japanese particle が (ga) at the end of the sentence or phrase, means “but” or in some cases “and.” Furthermore, the usage of が (ga) as “but” can be used in the same way as “but” in English, and can also be used when wanting to be cautious.

教授と話したいのですが...Kyoju to hanashitai no desu ga...I want to talk to the professor, and/but...

Japanese Particles : から (kara)

An indication of “from”

When the particle から (kara) is placed directly after a noun or a certain time phrase, it usually means “from”.

アメリカから来ました。Amerika kara kimashita.I come from America. 来週からからゴールデンウイークです。Raishu kara go-ruden ui-ku desu.From (Starting) next week, it is Golden Week.

An indication of “because”

If the Japanese particle から (kara) is placed directly after a verb or an i- adjective*, it usually means “because.” Although から (kara) can also be used as “because” with na- adjectives⁑ and nouns, this can only occur if it is paired with endings です (desu / formal) or だ (da / casual). In addition, から (kara) can be used at the end of a sentence rather than in the middle. As long as から (kara) is still at the end of the phrase, it will be the “reason” part of the sentence.

今日は休日ですから、学校に行きません。Kyou wa kyujitsu desu kara, gakkou ni ikimasen.Because today is a holiday, I will not go to school. 静かにしてください。図書館の中にいますから。Shizuka ni shite kudasai. Toshokan no naka ni imasu kara.Please be quiet. Since you are inside the library.

An indication of “after”

When the verb comes before the particle から (kara) and is a -Te form⁂ verb, から (kara) means “after” rather than “because”

勉強してから、出かけます。Benkyou shite kara, dekake masu.After studying, I will go out.

*i-adjectives: Always ends with “i”. ⁑na-adjective: Conjugation is same as a noun. ⁂-Te form: a verb with a modified ending

Japanese Particles : まで (made)

Period of time

In the case of the particle まで (made), it described a period of time. In general, the Japanese particle まで (made) was defined as “until”. Grammatically, it is usually attached to the end of nouns and dictionary form of verbs.

この授業は1時半から3時までです。Kono jyugyo wa ichi ji han kara san ji made desu.This class is from 1:30 until 3:00. 来年の三月まで教授の授業を受けます。Rainen no sangatsu made jyugyo o ukemasu.I'll take the professor's seminar until March of next year.

Point in time

In the case of the particle に (ni) is attached to the Japanese particle まで (made), which indicates the end of an exact point in time. For example, as in “before” or “by the time of”. Simply, the particle まで (made), in this case, was used for phrases mainly of “until I do something”.

レポートを明日までに提出しなくちゃいけません。Repo-to o ashita made ni teishutsu shinakucha ikemasen.I have to submit the homework by tomorrow. 六時までに電話します。Rokuj made ni denwa shimasu.I will call you by 6 o'clock.

Indication of a location

In this case, the Japanese particle まで (made) is used to express the time or period related to a location. Usually, the Japanese particle まで (made) was defined as “by”.

明日までにこのレポートを書かなければならないのです。Ashita made ni kono repo-to o kakanaikereba naranai no desu.I have to write this report by tomorrow. 東京から京都まではどのぐらい掛かりますか。Tokyo kara Kyoto made wa dono gurai kakarimasuka?How long does it take from Tokyo to Kyoto?

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Ban Cua Ga, Cua Ga Sat,

Lắp Cựa Thời Xa Xưa

Robert Howlett – Trích “The Royal Pastime of Cock-fighting” (1709)

RVà về việc lắp cựa cho gà, không có một công thức nhất định nào, bởi cách thức và đòn lối của một số con đòi hỏi cựa phải lắp thật cao; số khác lại thật thấp: Con này phải lắp cựa “gai” (narrow), con kia lại phải lắp cựa ngay (wide) hết mức có thể.

Và do vậy, tôi không để ai khác lắp cựa, trừ phi anh ta phải xem gà xổ trước đó, và nhận biết lối đá của nó; không những anh ta chẳng thể trở thành một chuyên gia lắp cựa [nếu không làm vậy], mà theo tôi cách phù hợp nhất để lắp cựa gà là chăm sóc và xem nó xổ.

 Nguyên Tắc Lắp Cựa Gà

W. Cooper – Trích “Game Fowls, Their Origin and History” (1869)

Hãy nhờ một phụ tá giữ gà; giữ nó sao cho mặt trong của cẳng chân ở đúng tầm, rồi dùng ngón cái và ngón trỏ nắm kéo ngón thới của gà; trong khi làm vậy bạn sẽ thấy sợi gân chân nhấp nhô ngay tại gối. Bạn sẽ  lắp cựa bên phải thẳng hàng với mép ngoài của sợi gân ngay tại gối, và cựa bên trái thẳng hàng với mép trong của sợi gân ngay tại gối. Cẩn thận không chỉnh cựa trái quá gai vào trong bởi sẽ khiến gà tự đâm chính mình. Theo nguyên tắc chung áp dụng cho người mới chơi, tốt nhất bạn nên lắp cựa phải thẳng hàng với mép ngoài của chân đối diện với gối; và cựa trái thẳng hàng với mép ngoài của sợi gân ngay tại gối [người mới chưa quen chỉnh cựa nên sẽ an toàn nếu chỉnh cựa cả hai chân ngay hơn về thới]. Các bạn trẻ mới chơi nên lắp theo cách này cho đến khi trở nên thuần thục để lắp theo cách đầu tiên. Bởi nếu chỉ lắp cựa lố một phần mười sáu inch [một li rưỡi] vào trong sợi gân gối thì gà có thể tự đâm vào chính mình; và do vậy cần hết sức cẩn trọng khi lắp cựa. Chúng tôi áp dụng lối lắp cựa này trong vòng 30 năm, và  luôn thành công với một vài trường hợp ngoại lệ, vốn không phải do lỗi lắp cựa. Chúng tôi chưa từng thấy con nào đá quá 30 chân khi lắp cựa theo cách này mà một trong hai con chưa tử  trận. Bởi vậy trường hợp hai con đá hoài mà chưa bị chết hay gục ngã, chắc chắn là vì lắp cựa kém.

Khi chuẩn bị gà đá trường và trước lúc bạn đưa gà vào lồng để biệt dưỡng, hãy đột cựa. Không đột quá ngắn, mà đủ dài để gắn đế cựa sắt lên cho chắc chắn. Sau đó, bạn đệm cựa bằng một mảnh giấy ẩm hay da ngựa thật mềm, để đế cựa sắt tròng vào thật khít, và không bị xê xích. Khi bạn đã chỉnh cựa xong, hãy cột nó bằng chỉ sáp  (wax-end) loại tốt nhưng không quá chặt khiến chân và các ngón bị đơ. Loại cựa sắt (gaft) sử dụng thường được đôi bên thỏa thuận trước trận đấu. Chiều dài và loại cựa phải gần như nhau, không thể phân biệt. Trách nhiệm của trọng tài là kiểm tra cựa dựa vào thỏa thuận của đôi bên. Gà cũng phải có trọng lượng tương đương. Trong khi gà của bạn đang cân, hãy chụp một cái bao, dùng riêng vào mục đích này, lên đầu để ngăn gà ngọ nguậy, nhờ vậy mà trọng lượng của nó mới chính xác. Khi mọi thứ đã sẵn sàng, hãy đá theo luật địa phương của bạn, hoặc những luật được ghi trong sách này.

Nhiều người có lẽ còn bỡ ngỡ với hàng loạt loại cựa sắt khác nhau, cả cựa hợp lệ lẫn cựa đểu, chúng tôi sẽ mô tả về chúng sau đây.

Loại cựa hợp lệ  là cựa tròn với đế gần như tròn, và bề ngoài quen thuộc. Những loại như cựa võng [drop socket: cựa hình số 3 hoặc số 7] là không công bằng và việc sử dụng chúng cần bị ngăn cấm. Ở những loại này, đế cựa dài và mặt dưới (lower side) được đệm da để cho vừa với gốc cựa xương, và cũng nhờ được đệm, khiến cựa hạ thấp xuống gần đến ngón chân; gọng cựa cũng võng xuống gần đế, gần như chạm vào bàn chân. Mũi dao có thể được chế từ cựa tiêu chuẩn hay cựa võng; lưỡi như mũi kiếm, dẫu chúng tôi từng thấy cả  loại ba ngạnh. Tất cả những loại cựa khác với loại đế tròn và gọng tròn đều bị coi là không hợp lệ. Người lắp cựa, nài gà cũng như trọng tài nên để ý đến vấn đề này.

==========================

*Sách của bác sĩ Cooper đã trở thành tài liệu kinh điển cho nhiều thế hệ sư kê trong hơn một thế kỷ chọi gà, cho đến tận ngày nay! Đây là phần mô tả của ông về hình lông và lối đá:

“Nhiều sư kê có kinh nghiệm đều công nhận rằng dù gà bạn có gan lỳ đến đâu thì khi bị cựa vào tinh hoàn hoặc ống dẫn tinh nó sẽ không chịu nổi.”

Người mà chúng tôi hết sức tin cậy, trong một trận ở Wilmington, Delaware, có con gà trúng cựa và bỏ chạy. Ông được một sư kê người Anh có mặt ở đó nói cho nguyên nhân, và sau đó ông mang gà về nhà, giết và mổ xác, phát hiện ra một đống máu bầm trong ống dẫn tinh, và vết đâm của cựa. Ông sau đó đem toàn bộ anh em cùng bầy với con này đi đá và tất cả đều gan lỳ cho đến chết. Khỏi cần phải nói giờ ông tin tưởng điều này đến mức nào. Nài trong trường đấu cũng hành động dựa trên kiến thức này, đôi khi chơi đểu bằng cách bấm gà, không đến mức lộ liễu, nhưng bấm đủ đau vào tinh hoàn để làm chúng bị rót.

Gà có lối đá riêng và đôi khi được phát trển thành một dòng hay phân dòng. Điều này không phải lúc nào cũng đúng nhưng trên thực tế, một số dòng được đặt tên theo lối đá của chúng.

Gà NẠP LÙA (shuffler) được đặt tên như vậy bởi vì khi đá chúng luôn nạp, lùa và đá theo cách thức gấp gáp, ồ ạt. Chúng thường đá thấp, nhắm vào thân và hiếm khi đá lên đến đầu của địch thủ. Gà loại này nên luôn đá với thể loại cựa dài, đại loại hai hay thậm chí hai inch rưỡi (5 – 6.4 cm) tùy trọng lượng; lý do là vì khi gà chỉ đâm thân, cựa phải đủ dài để đâm sâu và gây ra vết thương chí mạng. Khi bạn buộc phải đá thể  loại cựa ngắn, hãy chọn những con đá cao chân và giỏi tránh né. Những con này khi đá cựa ngắn sẽ chiếm ưu thế so với gà nạp lùa; nhưng khi đá cựa dài thì lợi thế không còn nữa, mà nếu có thì sẽ nghiêng về phía gà nạp lùa.

Một số con có thói quen hụp đầu khi gà địch đá, và ngay khi gà địch đá trượt và bay qua đầu, nó bèn xoay lại và đá liền trước khi địch thủ kịp lấy lại thăng bằng. Những con như vậy rất nguy hiểm và một số người chuộng.

Gà CHẠY XE (wheeler) được gọi theo lối đá của chúng – Một số con phát triển thành tật hay thói quen tự nhiên, mà theo đó chúng chạy xe sau ba hay bốn cú đá. Dẫu lối đá này không được chuộng, chúng thường thắng phần lớn trận đấu nhờ lối đá này.

Những con khác đá đá tương đối chân phương, trực diện – không bao giờ lưỡng lự, nhùng nhằng. Chúng đá ngay lập tức, và đá nạp hoặc đá lông. Chúng gan lỳ đến tận xương tủy, và một khi nắm lông, chúng sẽ đá cho đến khi mất đà hoặc bị đối phương ngăn cản, và sau đó chúng nhanh chóng đá lại như thể trả đũa cho sự cố này, hoặc để ngăn cản đối phương chiếm ưu thế. Đây là loại chiến kê được ưa chuộng hàng đầu, không chỉ vì lối đá hay, mà còn vì những chiến kê như thế này thường hạ thủ tốt, và bởi vì chúng dường như trả lời trực tiếp cho điều mà ai cũng mong đợi: sự gan lỳ.  Có những khác biệt về hình dạng (shape) và dáng (station), một số dòng và phân dòng cẳng dài, lêu nghêu, trong khi số khác lại thấp bé, phục phịch. Gà cẳng dài, không phải lúc nào cũng vững chãi, nhưng nhiều con vẫn làm được, và khi đặc điểm này xuất hiện, nó không chỉ có giá trị đấm đá, mà còn góp phần vào vẻ đẹp của gà – bên cạnh bộ lông, rậm rạp và xum xuê, kết hợp với vóc dáng.

Thông thường, gà cẳng ngắn đứng vững chãi, và nâng đỡ cơ thể ở vị trí phù hợp. Qua một thời gian dài đá trường, chúng tôi nhận thấy đa số đều chuộng gà dáng đẹp với cẳng dài và mạnh mẽ – chúng tôi nhấn mạnh cẳng dài đá trường, chứ không phải gà kiểng. Nhiều người tin rằng gà cẳng dài, cổ  cao có nhiều lợi thế  rướn, và đứng đầu trong số những chiến kê đá hay và mạnh nhất, và như vậy, chúng cũng có lợi thế khi đá lông (billing) [các tác giả sau thường dùng “bill hold”= đá lông, “billing”=cắn mổ trước khi thả].

Thật sai lầm khi cho rằng gà dáng cao, cẳng dài luôn chiếm ưu thế so với gà dáng thấp. Chúng ta thường thấy rằng gà dáng cao đá không chính xác, lối đá do dự và thận trọng kể cả với đối thủ nhỏ hơn nhiều; thỉnh thoảng bạn cũng thấy có con đá lông kém, và khi hai điều này cùng kết hợp thì những con như vậy không nên đem đá trường, dẫu dòng giống của chúng là gì đi nữa.

Chúng ta thường thấy gà dáng thấp, khi đá trường,  tự vươn thẳng đến độ cao bất thường, nâng dáng trong sự phấn khích khi đối địch – Những con như thế này thường rất cảnh giác, mạnh mẽ và xuất sắc trong đá trường.

Không hề có công thức nào về dáng, màu sắc, hay hình dạng áp dụng cho việc tuyển chọn một chiến kê xuất sắc. Chắc chắn rằng không gì có thể mô tả một cách tường tận. Đa số mọi người đều dựa vào cảm tính cá nhân, chứ không dựa vào việc nghiên cứu một cách cẩn trọng các đặc điểm của gà chọi.

Mọi sư kê đều phải thường xuyên thử nghiệm gà bằng cách xổ chúng với gà mồi. Đánh giá dựa trên cách chúng đá nạp và đá lông.  Gà đá lông dữ dằn được chuộng bất kể kích thước ra sao, bởi nó hầu như có xu hướng đá đều đặn, tận dụng được thời gian quý giá lúc cận chiến và đá bồi nhanh chóng.

Gà dáng cao, mau đá lông, đôi khi  ỷ  lại quá nhiều vào lối này mà bỏ qua không chịu đá. Việc xổ và huấn luyện thường xuyên thường sửa được lỗi tật tệ hại này, đặc biệt là khi xổ với con lớn hơn và đá hay hơn nó trước, rồi mới chuyển qua con nhỏ hơn và đá kém hơn. Nó sẽ nhanh chóng nhận ra lỗi tật của mình quá bất lợi và thay đổi khi đá trường vốn dựa trên những gì đã học, luôn là điều có lợi.

Khi bạn muốn mua gà hay mà không có cơ hội được lựa tận tay, bạn nên chọn những con thuộc về dòng hay phân dòng đã nổi danh; và nếu bạn thích một lối đá nhất định, tên gọi của nhiều dòng gà sẽ giúp bạn lựa chọn một cách khôn ngoan.

Gà chọi nên được mua từ nhà phân phối (dealer) mà bạn tin tưởng nhất, hay là nơi mà bạn có thể thẩm tra. Một số dòng hay phân dòng luôn được ghi nhận về năng lực đá trường – nhưng một số con lại làm hại danh tiếng này. Ở những dòng hay phân dòng khác, sự đảo chiều đôi khi là có thực, và loại bỏ chúng càng nhanh chóng thì sẽ càng có lợi về nhiều mặt. Sẽ tốn tiền vô ích khi mua phải những con như vậy – sẽ mất thời gian vô ích khi lai tạo chúng – và nếu đem đá trường thì bạn sẽ lãnh đủ.

Sư kê và người mới chơi thường hoàn toàn thất vọng với hiện tượng mà họ gọi  là “luồng xui xẻo”, trong khi nếu nghiên cứu cẩn trọng về các đặc điểm và dòng gà đem đá, bạn sẽ  tìm thấy lý do chính đáng cho sự xui xẻo của mình.

Khi một sư kê thua độ với con gà đá hay, mạnh, bạn thường cam chịu, vì biết rằng bạn sẽ chấp nhận mọi rủi ro thông thường của trận đấu, và như thành lệ, bạn không cảm thấy bực bội khi chung tiền. Không có niềm tin nào bị suy chuyển và quan điểm về bản thân cũng như gà qué vẫn như trước. Chỉ trong những trận đấu như thế này mà “xui xẻo” mới có cơ hội xảy ra.

“May độ” chiếm một phần đáng kể, đặc biệt trong suy nghĩ và mục đích của người chơi thiếu kinh nghiệm. Không nhất thiết khi tham gia bộ môn mà luôn phải đồng hành với sự khinh xuất, hay quá nhiều rủi ro. “May độ” không bao giờ được đưa vào sự  tính toán, bởi niềm vui chiến thắng mà nó mang lại không bằng một nửa so với việc nghiên cứu cẩn trọng các đặc điểm của chiến kê, huấn luyện chúng và nhận thức rằng chiến thắng giành được hoàn toàn nhờ vào công sức của chính bạn.

Người mới chơi nên tìm hiểu kỹ  lưỡng về  lối đá của dòng gà mà bạn sở hữu, hay bất cứ con gà nào mà mình kỳ vọng; bởi vì đây là điều đem lại rất nhiều niềm vui cho các bạn. Lời khuyên này không cần thiết với các cựu sư kê, bởi không ai thành công mà lại bỏ qua điều quan trọng này, và phải luôn thực hành một cách liên tục. Đây thực sự là niềm vui chủ yếu, vì với nhiều người trong số họ, điều-đúng-đắn trên cuộc đời này, là tham dự  trận đấu chỉ nhằm để kiểm tra đánh giá của chính mình.

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